What are the main hereditary diseases in dogs?


There are close tohalf a million hereditary diseases that affect dogs, some are extremely rare, others very common, and may affect up to 1 in 10 dogs of the same breed. Each canine breed is affected by very specific pathologies of this type. In the majority of cases, the consanguinity promotes the transmission of mutant genes, but there are also environmental factors that can promote some of these diseases. Here are the most commonly diagnosed and canine breeds who are particularly predisposed to it.

Dysplasia (hip, elbow …)

  • German shepherd,
  • Boxer,
  • Dalmatian,
  • Doberman,
  • Golden retriever,
  • Labrador,
  • Saint Bernard,
  • English setter,
  • Irish Setter,
  • Rottweiler.

Frequent in large breed dogs, this pathology leads to a progressive malformation of the joint. In the case of hip dysplasia, for example, the dog limps and its movements are more and more painful with age to such an extent that it is difficult to stand up. Dysplasia is very disabling.

Brachycephalic syndrome

  • Cavalier King Charles spaniel,
  • English Bulldog,
  • French Bulldog,
  • Shar-Pei,
  • Lhasa Apso,
  • Pug,
  • Shih Tzu,
  • Boxer,
  • Pekingese,
  • Staffordshire Bull Terrier,
  • Boston Terrier.

These are the eleven breeds of brachycephalic dogs, whose very specific physical characteristics are above all the flattened forehead, the crushed nose, the narrow nostrils, a short larynx … The brachycephalic syndrome is due to this very particular anatomy which involves multiple respiratory problems in particular.

Hyperuricosuria

  • Black Russian Terrier,
  • Weimaraner,
  • English bulldog,
  • American Staffordshire terrier,
  • Australian shepherd,
  • Jack russell terrier,
  • Giant Schnauzer,
  • German shepherd,
  • Dwarf spitz,
  • Great Munster Spaniel.

This disease causes an excess of uric acid in the urine and in the blood and consequently, the affected dogs are more prone to urinary stones which cause severe pain, hematuria, difficulty urinating, urinary incontinence.

Cerebellar abiotrophy

  • Labrador retriever,
  • Gordon Setter,
  • Bobtail,
  • Kerry Blue Terrier,
  • Australian Kelpie,
  • Border Collie,
  • Airedale,
  • Scottish terrier,
  • Miniature Schnauzer,
  • English pointer.

This inherited disease that affects the the nervous system causes tremors, a disorganized gait … It evolves more or less quickly depending on the dog breeds. Dogs are prone to accidents due to the lack of reflexes in certain situations.

Essential epilepsy

  • Border Collie,
  • German shepherd,
  • Dachshund,
  • Lagatto Romagnolo,
  • English Springer Spaniel,
  • Belgian Shepherd,
  • Beagle,
  • Irish wolfhound,
  • Poodle,
  • Bernese Mountain Dog …

All dog breeds are exposed to this disease. Dogs are prone to epileptic seizures including during periods of sleep. A seizure is usually preceded by vomiting, tremors, and restlessness. Of neurological sequelae are to be feared.

Cataract

  • Bull Terrier,
  • Miniature Schnauzer,
  • Staffordshire,
  • Poodle.

The pupil of the dog becomes milky due to theclouding of the lens. Visual acuity decreases over time and the dog may become blind.

Retinal atrophy

  • German shepherd,
  • Doberman,
  • Irish Setter,
  • Dalmatian, Golden retriever,
  • Labrador,
  • English setter
  • Boxer,
  • Rottweiler.

This disease affects the retina and causes blindness.

Congenital deafness

  • Labrador,
  • Dalmatian,
  • English setter,
  • Irish Setter.

This condition affects only one ear and results in disability.

Acquired congenital hydrocephalus

  • Cavalier King Charles,
  • Pekingese,
  • Pug,
  • Maltese,
  • Lhasa Apso,
  • Chihuahua,
  • Yorkshire terrier,
  • Cairn Terrier,
  • Boston Terrier,
  • English bulldog,
  • French Bulldog,
  • Pomeranian.

Dogs of dwarf breeds are the most predisposed to this pathology which can nevertheless affect all canine breeds. There is an excess of cerebrospinal fluid which irreparably causes dilation of the brain cavities and pressure on this organ. The lesions caused are long lasting and the disease is fatal.

Hemophilia A

  • Irish Setter,
  • Siberian Husky,
  • German shepherd,
  • English setter.

The disease manifests itself by a coagulation defect so that the slightest bleeding can be extremely dangerous for the dog.

Von Willebrand’s disease

  • English setter,
  • Irish Setter,
  • Dalmatian,
  • Labrador
  • Rottweiler,
  • Golden retriever,
  • German shepherd,
  • Doberman.

The blood platelets do not attach and the blood clots poorly.

Myasthenia gravis

  • Jack russel,
  • Chihuahua,
  • Dachshund,
  • Akita inu.

This neuromuscular disease manifests as generalized muscle weakness. Swallowing problems can cause aspiration pneumonia following a “wrong drive”.

Degenerative myelopathy

  • German shepherd,
  • Boxer,
  • Siberian Husky,
  • Welsh corgi,
  • Bernese mountain dog,
  • Rhodesian ridgeback.

It is a progressive degeneration of the spinal cord. The animal presents a lack of coordination at the level of the hindquarters, muscle atrophy and paralysis of the hind limbs first and then of the forelegs thereafter. Theeuthanasia of the dog is predictable.

All breeding dogs should be tested before mating. Animals carrying a mutant gene or an abnormality should be excluded from breeding so that the number of inherited diseases can decrease.

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