For centuries the selection confers specific characteristics on dogs in order to improve their appearance or aptitudes. If new breeds appear regularly, not all are recognized by national or international cynological organizations. What breeds are these and how are they created? What are the criteria of recognition? Our responses.
How are dog breeds created?
The creation of a breed of dogs requires that phenotypes (all the visible characteristics of an organism) are unique. Therefore, this imperative excludes the crossing between two already existing breeds. Long-term research then aims to ensure that the new characteristics do not disappear. An essential work of selection thus consists in stabilize these special traits over generations and avoid the transmission of diseases genetics, too much consanguinity as well as the appearance of tares.
Can we cross any breed of dog?
To carry out crosses between dogs, the breeds selected at the start must be compatible between them. For example, prerequisites are required such as:
- A cut similar in order to limit the risks during the birth;
- Similar physical and mental characteristics;
- Broodstock free from problems genetics.
Other general principles are specific to certain breeds such as that of not mating two individuals of color blackbird because a quarter of the offspring will be homozygous and will exhibit fatal or injurious to health defects, such as deafness.
How is a dog breed recognized in France?
In France, any candidate population may be subject to national recognition, according to criteria left to the appreciation of the Central Canine Society (SCC) which keeps the genealogical book. Thus, breeds can be recognized by the SCC but not by the Federation Cynologique Internationale (FCI). Before receiving recognition, the breed is observed at length to ensure that the physical criteria are set in a way. persistent. During the observation phase, the presentation of new dog breeds is authorized on show but is not subject to judgments or competitions.
Recognition of breeds by the FCI: what process?
More than 350 dog breeds are recognized by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale which, to validate a new request, requires at least eight lines. This long period aims to homogenize the type, make the population known, make the herd book more reliable and monitor the state of health of the animals. A major step is to obtain a provisional title, such as the following three races:
- The Estonian Hound. Specialized in hunting lynx, fox and hare, he usually wears a tricolor coat and displays a rather compact body. It measures between 43 to 52 cm;
- The Miniature American Shepherd looks like a mini Australian Shepherd. Slightly longer than high, it measures between 33 and 46 cm;
- The Yakutia laika. Instinctively oriented towards the discipline of sledding, he is robust, of medium height (between 53 and 59 cm) and wears a generally two-tone or three-tone dress.
When the eight generations have been examined and the evolution of the breed is considered stabilized, the FCI grants the status of “new breed”. A standard is written to guide breeders in their selection of breeders.
10 new dog breeds to discover
They appeared recently but were not recognized as breeds:
- The Bergamo Shepherd is originally from the Italian Alps where it is used to watch over flocks. With his muscular body and covered with very long hair, he resembles the Komondor, a Hungarian sheepdog;
- The American Bully has an American Staffordshire Terrier, American Pit Bull and other bulldog-type breeds among its ancestors. With a massive torso, it comes in 4 different sizes. He is recognized by the ABKC (American Bully Kennel Club);
- The frenchie pug is the result of a selection of two small popular breeds: the French Bulldog and the Pug from which he took the stocky body. Its short coat can display a variety of colors. It has a curved tail and large ears;
- The yoranian results from the mixture between a Pomeranian and a Yorkshire terrier. Sturdy and compact, he displays a small stature, round face, black nose, dark eyes and pointed ears;
- The goldendoodle was born from the marriage between a poodle (in English “doodle”) and a golden retriever of which it preserves the great sociability;
- The labradoodle comes from the union between a labrador and a poodle from which he borrowed the hypoallergenic coat;
- The puggle is the result of mating between a female beagle and a male pug;
- The yorkipoo is a miniature dog emanating from the hybridization between a Yorkshire terrier and a poodle. It hardly produces allergic reactions because it loses very little hair;
- The zuchon has as parents a bichon frize and a shih tzu. It is about 30cm tall and weighs 5-7kg;
- The pomsky comes from the alliance between a husky and a dwarf spitz. He wears the husky’s thick coat and, in many cases, his blue eyes.
The history of canine breeds is marked by the desire of man to select characteristics of the dog in order to improve some of his attributes. physical or behavioral. To limit the experimental drifts, the cynological organizations ensure that the crosses do not carry prejudice to the health or well-being of the animal and, in this context, may refuse the recognition of crossbreeding that does not meet their ethical criteria.