What is a lintel? How and with what is it made? What is it used for ?

Present in most constructions, the lintel is a fundamental part which makes it possible to form the upper part of the opening in a wall. The constitution of a lintel can be carried out with various materials (whether it is with wood, steel, concrete) and with several techniques (ranging from the prefabricated pre-lintel to the chaining block). This article will allow you to know a little more about this construction element, its characteristics as well as the different materials that can complete it.

What is a lintel?

At the base, the lintel was a simple wooden beam that was placed horizontally between the two vertical posts so that a stable support was put in place. Originally, the wooden lintel was used following the creation of a fireplace hearth and in the upper part of all the openings (window and door).

Over time, construction techniques have evolved. Among the techniques that have experienced great progress, we find that of enlarging openings. This prompted builders and manufacturers to find another material more resistant than wood for the composition of the lintels.

Today, any home will have the possibility of creating an opening in a masonry, based only on the different lintels available on the market. Anyone can either buy a prefabricated model in store or make their own lintels, using specific materials.

The characteristics of the lintels

The specificity of the lintels depends on the width of the opening you want to create. The opening will define the maximum length of your lintel as well as the thickness of the wall in which you want to integrate your lintel. The maximum length of a lintel will also depend on the technical characteristics of the material you have chosen. Indeed, it is important not to let the lintel flex (bend) once you have laid the masonry. The choice of lintel will therefore be based on the materials and technical constraints of the latter.

What are monoblock lintels?

One-piece lintels are lintels made from a single piece that will be placed on the vertical supports of an opening. Users can find several types of lintels in this category:

The wooden lintel

This type is the traditional lintel. It allows the user to create a one-piece ridge with one opening without the need to use other work for installation. Generally, the wooden lintel is a piece of beam that is left exposed on a stone construction.

The steel lintel

For the steel lintel, the user will have to replace the wooden beam with a steel IPN (or beam with normal profile). Subsequently, he will obtain a solid lintel available in several sections and several lengths. Being in the category of monobloc lintels, the latter frees the user from heavy work. The length of the steel lintel can be up to 12 meters total span in the various sections. This length is sufficient to integrate with masonry and make the support more stable.

The one-piece concrete lintel

As its name suggests, this lintel is made from reinforced concrete. Even if its span is not greater than that which can be obtained with an IPN (approximately 1.4 m), the one-piece concrete lintel can be installed more easily and this for the majority of windows and doors. doors on a classical construction. The other advantage of this type of lintel is that it can be integrated into any masonry of the walls.

As a user, you will have to understand that the one-piece lintel (whether it is wood, steel or concrete) can represent a significant weight which can be a brake on its installation if you do not have the means. adequate lifting. But once you have installed it, it allows an almost immediate resumption of your site without requiring a drying time.

What are the more elaborate types of lintels?

Currently, there is a category of lintels on the market which can be classified into several segments. The difference between these lintels and the first type is that they require additional work once you have finished installing them. We find in particular:

The reinforced concrete lintel

This lintel is made thanks to the end-to-end alignment of the chaining blocks. It will subsequently be filled with concrete reinforced with irons. If you have in-depth knowledge of masonry, it will be very easy for you to make this type of lintel without requiring great means. On the other hand, if you opt for this type of lintel you need a maximum of drying and hardening time. Indeed, these two stages can be spread over 28 days. And when you resume construction, don’t forget to remove the props and the cofferdam.

The prelint

Halfway between the prefabricated monobloc concrete lintel and the lintel in linkage blocks, this type of lintel can replace the cofferdam which is supposed to support the concrete blocks. You just have to place it between the two uprights and then mount it on the concrete blocks without hindering future constructions. Even if the drying time is also important, the prelintel remains the type of lintel that provides the most rigidity.

The chaining lintel

Made mainly of concrete, the chaining lintel is one-piece U-shaped. You can lay it as is and then fill it with concrete and irons. Its greatest advantage over other types of lintels (including the pre-lintel) is that it offers the possibility of obtaining a large span.

What are the criteria to take into account?

Although this is an important point, the price should not be a decisive criterion in the choice of your lintel. Indeed, the ideal lintel must be able to respect some construction characteristics: the length of the opening, the thickness of the walls as well as the architectural constraints.

When you have considered your purchase budget, you should also include another budget for the installation of your lintel. It is also important to take into account the exposure time that this will require as well as the time required for hardening and drying.